The Heat Pump Water Heater market is characterized by the presence of a diversified regional and highly fragmented supply side providing with their knowledge of the market customized products. This is posing a stiff competition to the international players. However, the local manufacturers find it increasingly difficult to compete these, while the international players also take over or collaborate more and more with regional or local players.
For the Annex 46 country reports have been delivered by Japan, South Korea, Canada, France, United Kingdom, Switzerland and Netherlands. An overview is given in the General Report which has been compiled and edited based upon the country reports delivered by the participating countries and other information available.
The use of energy for generating in home sanitary hot water differs per region worldwide and is mostly dependent on differences in bathing culture. Yet it can be analysed that the bathing culture in USA and Europe are practically similar, but for the energy use. This could indicate that generating efficiency in Germany and France is better that in USA and UK.
Market penetration of HPWH
Great diversity in markets, due to existing markets and cultural difference in hot water usage.
- Largest market is China (also for thermal solar), mainly with CO2 as refrigerant;
- Japan with 10% of market is the other biggest market (in numbers), mainly ECO Cute;
- USA has a large potential in replacing Electric and Gas DHW storage tanks (typically still a market of split systems);
- In Europe DHW HP is the ‘grow engine’ of the heat pump market. Double function market is growing, especially in countries with a need for space heating;
- Collective systems in MFB the biggest challenge (and District Heating in a number of European countries and Korea)
The potential is still large as although the market growth in some regions seem impressive it reflects only a too small part of the overall market.
As stand-alone mono bloc or split Air Source Heat Pump Water Heaters in the domestic market the efficiency is dependent on the temperature of the air source. This can be ambient air from a house/building ventilation system or outside air. The application of ASHPWH with outside air as source is thus dependent on the region where it is installed. The regions of Europe, North America and Japan are split in a number of climate zones.
Special attention should be given to ‘cold climate’ applications of air source HPWH. Frost formation on the evaporator is an important obstacle. While in the mid between hot and cold climate evaporators are ‘struggling’ with high humidity.
In order to develop these markets a focused long term policy is needed, using instruments to mandate the application of HPWH’s.